Wednesday, August 30, 2017

RF Noise Monitoring system for HF

RF Noise Monitoring system on a Raspberry Pi

(This system will record RF signals and upload the results to the Server where trending graphs are created)

This system software is available pre installed on a 16GB SD card from Giga Technology
Raspberry Pi OS with HF monitoring software pre installed
What do I get on the software?
I system that will record 1Mhz band with samples every 2 minutes generating Graphs and Heat-map of the hole 1 to 30Mhz band.
What hardware do I need?
The  100khz to 1.7Ghz HF dongle as in picture below Screenshot of Graph monitoring.
url of link on system http://localhost/hf_noise/graph/1Mhz_Power.php
Link to live system is here http://zr6aic.giga.co.za/hf_noise/graph/1Mhz_Power.php 
Screenshot of the HF Monitoring system

How does this system work?

Block Diagram of the HF Noise Monitoring system

How dose the HF Noise Monitoring system work

  • The HF noise monitoring system takes a 1Mhz bandwidth samples every 2 minutes using the rtl_power utility and save the measurements in a CVS fie.
  • The 2 minute scheduling is done with a Crontab calling a script in the hf_noise directory.
  • The RF Samples is taken at a 1Mhz bandwidth from 1M to 30Mhz therefore 29 of  the CVS files is created and gets appended as the measurements is made.
  • A Perl script utility is the executed from a cron scedular  to read the 29 CSV files and import there data into a RRD database.
  • The RRD database then gets interrogated by another Perl script scheduled by a cronjob to generate the graph Images and and html files and get saved in the Apache web server graph directory witch is the exposed on http://localhost/hf_noise/graph/1Mhz_Power.php
  • Link to Live system http://zr6aic.giga.co.za/hf_noise/graph/1Mhz_Power.php 
  • The RRD database will then create the Hourly, Daily,Weekly,Monthly and Yearly averages and   then generates the graphs every 2 minutes according to the parameters passed to Database.
  • The generated graphs is then displayed in a php page via a Apache web server with an php plugin on the following url http://localhost/hf_noise/graph/1Mhz_Power.php.
  • Trends can then be seen on a graphs over time.
  • The heat map is generated by a python script from different CSV files and is saved in the /var/www/hf_noise/images directory and can be accessed on the local web server on the following url http://localhost/hf_noise/images
  • Link to live system http://zr6aic.giga.co.za/vhf_heatmap/images/
  • The systems has a static IP by default on Ethernet 192.168.10.200 and 192.168.10.205 on wifi if you have wifi dongle installed. You can change it to your ip

Here is a list of RRD database management tips

  • How to backup my RRD db data?
  • use rrdtool dump hf_noise.rrd > filename.xml to export the data to XML format.
  • How to Restore my RRD db data?
  • Transfer the XML dump to the target system. Run rrdtool restore [--range-check|-r] [--force-overwrite|-f] filename.xml filename.rrd to create a new RRD from the XML dump. See rrdrestore for details.
  • How to change some of the the RRD db data?
  • Use rrdtool dump to export RRD files to XML.
    Open the XML file, find and edit the bad data.
    Restore the RRD file using rrdtool restore.

 How to generate a brand new RRD db?


There is an script in the hf_noise directory called create_rrd_db.sh
You can just run this script in the hf_directory sudo ./create_rrd_db.sh

Here is the details of the scrip.
    rrdtool create  hf_noise.rrd --start now-2d --step 120 DS:1Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:2Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:3Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:4Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:5Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:6Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:7Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:8Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:9Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:10Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:11Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:12Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:13Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:14Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:15Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:16Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:17Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:18Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:19Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:20Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:21Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:22Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:23Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:24Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:25Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:26Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:27Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:28Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:29Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:30Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:864000 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:60:129600 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:3600:13392 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:86400:3660

I have still got my csv files and want to reload it into my rrd database

Still need to add details how to do this.





HF Heat map monitoring System. 


Link on local network http://localhost/hf_noise/images

link to live system http://zr6aic.giga.co.za/hf_noise/images/
Here is  a screenshot of the monitoring page and the green button
 can be used to select the frequency band of interest


Single view

Here is a view of the HF spectrum from 1Mhz to 30Mhz (activity can now be seen for the day)
Here is a view of the heat map that was selected
If you click on the image the the image will zoomed to maximum

Enlarged View

Here is a screenshot of the enlarged view.

So here is an example of the utility that generate the CSV file

Noise Recording

rtl_power -f 24M:1.7G:1M -g 50 -i 20m -1 noise-unmodded.csv

Heat map Plotting.

Still need to add detail


Installing the system from scratch (not yet complete)

sudo apt-get install cpanminus

sudo cpanm Text::Trim
sudo cpanm  Text::CSV
sudo cpanm  Date::Manip

sudo cpanm Text::Trim qw(trim)
sudo cpanm RRD::Simple ()

rrdtool update hf_noise.rrd ds-name:30Mhz_Power $recordtime:$rrdfields[29]\n";


rrdtool create  hf_noise.rrd --start now-2d --step 120 DS:1Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:2Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:3Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:4Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:5Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:6Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:7Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:8Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:9Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:10Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:11Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:12Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:13Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:14Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:15Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:16Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:17Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:18Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:19Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:20Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:21Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:22Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:23Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:24Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:25Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:26Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:27Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:28Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:29Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 DS:30Mhz_Power:GAUGE:120:-40:10 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:864000 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:60:129600 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:3600:13392 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:86400:3660


sudo apt-get install librrds-perl
sudo apt-get install rrdtool
perl -MCPAN -e 'install Test::Deep'
perl -MCPAN -e 'install Test::Pod'
perl -MCPAN -e 'install Test::Pod::Coverage'
perl -MCPAN -e 'install RRD::Simple'

Still need to add details



Monday, June 5, 2017

Configuring my SA9227 with PCM5102A 32BIT / 384KHZ USB3 Hifi Audio DAC on Linux

Configuring my SA9227 with PCM5102A 32BIT / 384KHZ USB3 Hifi Audio DAC on Linux


SA9227 with PCM5102A 32BIT / 384KHZ USB3 Hifi Audio DAC 
I was looking for a high end Audio DAC for Linux and found this unit. I wanted to generate IQ moderation for a transmitter and this module would work nicely. It Unfortunately it only works on USB3 so this one cant be used on raspberry Pi 3 :-( but works fine on my Ubuntu laptop.


Description

  • Input :5 V (USB supply),
  • THD+N: <0.005% (RL = 10 kω)
  • independence: >95 dB
  • DRC: >95 dB
  • USB sample rate:16-32BIT/32-284KHZ
I first tried it on a USB 2 port but got this error when connecting the Device to the usb2 port

/var/log$ tail -f syslog
Jun  5 21:32:03 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101544.064132] usb 2-1.2: device descriptor read/64, error -32
Jun  5 21:32:03 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101544.240155] usb 2-1.2: new full-speed USB device number 21 using ehci-pci
Jun  5 21:32:03 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101544.312119] usb 2-1.2: device descriptor read/64, error -32
Jun  5 21:32:03 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101544.488089] usb 2-1.2: device descriptor read/64, error -32
Jun  5 21:32:04 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101544.664066] usb 2-1.2: new full-speed USB device number 22 using ehci-pci
Jun  5 21:32:04 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101545.072135] usb 2-1.2: device not accepting address 22, error -32
Jun  5 21:32:04 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101545.144111] usb 2-1.2: new full-speed USB device number 23 using ehci-pci
Jun  5 21:32:05 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101545.552096] usb 2-1.2: device not accepting address 23, error -32
Jun  5 21:32:05 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [101545.552269] usb 2-1-port2: unable to enumerate USB device
Jun  5 21:32:05 anton-SATELLITE-P755 gnome-session[2394]: (gnome-software:2545): Gs-WARNING **: failed to call gs_plugin_refine on appstream: Error opening file: Permission denied


I then tried it on a usb 3 port  and got the following log.

Jun  5 21:49:55 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102616.072168] usb 3-1: new full-speed USB device number 2 using xhci_hcd
Jun  5 21:49:55 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102616.192175] usb 3-1: device descriptor read/64, error -71
Jun  5 21:49:55 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102616.416205] usb 3-1: device descriptor read/64, error -71
Jun  5 21:49:56 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102616.632092] usb 3-1: new full-speed USB device number 3 using xhci_hcd
Jun  5 21:49:56 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102616.752241] usb 3-1: device descriptor read/64, error -71
Jun  5 21:49:56 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102616.976267] usb 3-1: device descriptor read/64, error -71
Jun  5 21:49:56 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.192119] usb 3-1: new full-speed USB device number 4 using xhci_hcd
Jun  5 21:49:56 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.192513] usb 3-1: Device not responding to setup address.
Jun  5 21:49:56 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.396397] usb 3-1: Device not responding to setup address.
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.600038] usb 3-1: device not accepting address 4, error -71
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.712114] usb 3-1: new high-speed USB device number 5 using xhci_hcd
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.733859] usb 3-1: New USB device found, idVendor=262a, idProduct=9227
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.733864] usb 3-1: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.733867] usb 3-1: Product: HD USB Audio
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.733869] usb 3-1: Manufacturer: XENRAN Audio
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.737019] input: XENRAN Audio HD USB Audio as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.5/0000:05:00.0/usb3/3-1/3-1:1.0/0003:262A:9227.0002/input/input16
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 kernel: [102617.737332] hid-generic 0003:262A:9227.0002: input,hidraw0: USB HID v1.00 Device [XENRAN Audio HD USB Audio] on usb-0000:05:00.0-1/input0
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 mtp-probe: checking bus 3, device 5: "/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.5/0000:05:00.0/usb3/3-1"
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 mtp-probe: bus: 3, device: 5 was not an MTP device
Jun  5 21:49:57 anton-SATELLITE-P755 systemd-udevd[19211]: Process '/usr/sbin/alsactl -E HOME=/run/alsa restore 1' failed with exit code 99.
Jun  5 21:50:01 anton-SATELLITE-P755 gnome-session[2394]: (gnome-software:2545): Gs-WARNING **: failed to call gs_plugin_refine on appstream: Error opening file: Permission denied


This looked promising

I then checked if Alsa would see the device

sudo aplay -l
**** List of PLAYBACK Hardware Devices ****
card 0: PCH [HDA Intel PCH], device 0: ALC269VB Analog [ALC269VB Analog]
  Subdevices: 1/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0
card 0: PCH [HDA Intel PCH], device 3: HDMI 0 [HDMI 0]
  Subdevices: 1/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0
card 1: Audio [HD USB Audio], device 0: USB Audio [USB Audio]
  Subdevices: 0/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0
card 1: Audio [HD USB Audio], device 1: USB Audio [USB Audio #1]
  Subdevices: 1/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0

and the yellow was added as a new device to be used.

I could now use the normal Alsa audio controls with this device.

Sunday, June 4, 2017

Configuring my wifi dongle on the Raspberry Pi to connect to my network router.

Configuring my wifi dongle on the Raspberry Pi to connect to my network router.

Generic Wifi dongle used on my Raspberry Pi


I had to get my router details and had to configure the following configuration files.
I wanted to give my Raspberry Pi a spear static IP so I always know what it is on my network.

I edited the following files.

/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

I added the following at the end. I was using WEB encryption and shared key on my router.
Change the details in yellow for your router if you use web encryption with shared key.
use your favorite editor
sudo vi /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

#Configeration of the file /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
country=GB
ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
update_config=1
network={
        ssid="MyRouter"  # your router ID
        key_mgmt=NONE
        wep_key0="0123456789123"  # or 13 characters, or a hexkey starting with 0x your key
        wep_tx_keyidx=0
        auth_alg=OPEN
}

Save and exit
And the change the following file

Edit the file as follows in the section configuring wlan0
I gave my Raspberry pi a spear static Ip on my network so always now what the ip is and don't use DHCP so I will not know what the Ip will be 
use your favorite editor

sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
auto wlan0
allow-hotplug wlan0
#iface wlan0 inet dhcp
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.1.205  #Static Ip
netmask 255.255.255.0 # Ip mask of network
gateway 192.168.1.254 # IP gateway of router
wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
iface default inet dhcp

Save

And reboot Raspberry Pi  sudo shutdown -r 0

ping your new Ip on Wifi network

ping 192.168.1.205

And it should now work.





Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Receiving NOAA weather satellite images with a RTL dongle and a Turnstile crossed dipole automatically.

Receiving NOAA weather satellite images with a RTL dongle and a Turnstile crossed dipole automatically. 
NOAA19-HVCT 2017-03-18 15:40 Taken with this system
What do you need to setup a automatic NOAA APT Weather station configuration.
The necessary licences for your region. FCC ...
Here is a Link to Automated NOAA weather satellite System In Bassonia South Africa.


Hardware requirement diagram.

How dose this system work?

  • The system consists of 3 shell scripts that tai 5 applications together.
  • The shell scrip will fetch the satellite TLE keps data from celestrack. http://www.celestrak.com/NORAD/elements/weather.txt
  • The NOAA satellite TLE data is then passed to the predict satellite positioning software.
  • The predict software calculate when the next satellite will be above your radio station.
  • The result of the calculations for the next 24 hours is then send to a scheduler program call "at".
  • The "at" scheduler will then start and stop the rtl_fm receiver at the required time, frequency and record the audio in the recording directory from the NOAA satellite.
  • The Audio files is not in the correct format for wxtoimg utility to convert it to images and need to be converted to the correct format using the SOX until.
  • The converted recordings is then passed to wxtoimg utility to generate the Satellite images.
  • The images is then exposed via a Apache web server with a php plugin to the internet.

Hardware

  • Raspberry PI and power supply
  • RTL dongle with USB cable and MCX connector adaptor.
  • RG58 Coaxial cable with connectors or better cable. Max 4m
  • Turnstile crossed dipole Antenna.
  • All Hardware and software is available from Giga Technology

Software

  • Predict - Utility to calculate satellite azimuth and elevation using TLE Kep elements
  • rtl_fm - SDR fm Demodulation Utility to decode your ATP Satellite signal to audio file.
  • Sox - To convert row Audio file into format for wxtoimg to convert to Satellite Image.
  • Shell script to calculate the schedule for enabling the rtl receiver.
  • wxtoimg - Utility that converts ATP Audio files into Satellite Images.
  • Apache server to expose the images to the internet.
Software Functional Block diagram


The following software need to be installed on Raspberry Pi or Linux server.

sudo apt-get install predict
sudo apt-get install rtl-sdr
sudo apt-get install sox
sudo apt-get install wxtoimg
sudo apt-get install git
sudo apt-get install apache2
sudo apt-get install php
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php
sudo apt-get install php-mcrypt
sudo apt-get install php-mysql

Create a directory sh in hour home directory.
cd
mkdir sh
cd sh
Create a wxsat directory in your home directory
cd
mkdir wxsat
cd wxsat
Create a images directory in wxsat directory
mkdir images
Create a recordings directory.
mkdir recordings
Create a thumb directory inside the images directory.
cd images
mkdir thumb


cd to sh directory and download the following scripts from github using the git command below
cd ~/sh
git clone https://github.com/antonjan/noaa_weather.git
it will create a directory noaa_weather in the sh directory
Inside the directory there will be three scripts. (the index.php will need to be moved later)
noaa_sat_scheduler.sh
noaa_scheduler.sh
create_thumbnail.sh
index.php
Readme.me

You will need to change your stations GPS coordinates in the following files

Edit the file noaa_sat_schedule.sh and change the following details to your coordinates.
The last one is altitude in meters.

/usr/local/bin/wxmap -a -T "NOAA ${bird}" -H ~/wxsat/weather.txt -L "-26.17/-28.03/1700" -p0 -o "\$mapdate" ~/wxsat/noaa${bird}map.png
/usr/local/bin/wxmap -a -T "NOAA ${bird}" -H ~/wxsat/weather.txt -L "-26.17/-28.03/1700" -p0 -o "\$mapdate" ~/wxtoimg/maps/noaa${bird}map.png

and save the file.
Then you need update the predict program with your station coordinates.
Run the command sudo predict
Select the G to change your ground station position details.
and enter to get to next position. ESC to exit. ant then Q to exit.




Setup crontab to run the scrip at midnight
using the command sudo crontab -e
add the following at the bottom of the crontab file

1 0 * * * ~/sh/noaa_weather/noaa_scheduler.sh

You can run the script manually now to see if it works.
sudo ~/sh/noaa_weather/noaa_scheduler.sh
it should create schedules to run for the next 24 hours.
type the command sudo at -l witch should list the scheduled tasks
You should see something like this.
94 Thu Mar 23 02:13:00 2017 a root
95 Thu Mar 23 14:43:00 2017 a root
88 Thu Mar 23 05:30:00 2017 a root
92 Thu Mar 23 05:49:00 2017 a root
89 Thu Mar 23 17:53:00 2017 a root

There also should be at least 4 files in the ~/wxsat directory

noaa15.at
noaa18.at
noaa19.at
weather.txt

If you got here all went ok.
Connect the rtl dongle to your raspberry pi or Linux (ubuntu) computer.
Connect the coaxial cable to the Turnstile crossed dipole at wate for the first scheduled task as in the list above. sudo at -l

If you want to remove a previous task you can run the following command.
Make sure you always only have one task for the same time.
sudo atrm [task number]   EG sudo atrm 94

Go and look in the ~/wxsat/images  directory and your satellite images should be there for the day.
cd ~/wxsat/images

Ok now we need to get your image exposed on the Apache2 web server.

You now will need the full path to your wxsat directory.
cd ~/wxsat
pwd
/home/anton/wxsat
So in my case the full path is /home/anton/wxsat
Create a link between the apache server and you images.
go to directory /var/www
cd /var/www
sudo ln -s /home/anton/wxsat ./wxsat

if you goto you webserver on raspberry or linux you should see your images.
Take your browser on the Raspberry or linux server and goto http://localhost/wxsat/images
You will see a directory with file names of all the satellite images.
If you cant see the images you might have to make a small change to your apache2.conf file.

make sure you have the following in you /etc/apache2/apache2.conf file
change or add this

<Directory /var/www/>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
</Directory>

Then restart Apache2
sudo systemctl restart apache2



Image file list

Ok So you want to see thumbnail images and the click on image to view full image the copy the file index.php from the git repository into your images directory.
cp ~/sh/noaa_weather/index.php ~/wxsat/images/

Ok check your image directory in your web browser again and it should now have index page with thumbnails. You can change the index.php content of this page to add your details.

http://localhost/wxsat/images

Thumbnail Image index page




Here is a Link to Automated NOAA weather satellite System In Bassonia South Africa.

My Satellite Antennas
Notes:
The following config files is used by default
(The wxtoimg and wxmap command line will look in both places for a config file)
  • /usr/local/etc/wxtoimg.cfg
  • ~.wxtoimgrc
Example of the config file.

#
# WXtoImg configuration file written by WXtoImg.
# "man wxtoimg" or wxtoimg.html for details.
# WXtoImg version 2.11.2 beta
#
#
Registration Name: WXtoImg Professional
Registration Email: Anton.janovsky@gmail.com
Registration Key: TRLQ-KGKH-7M7!-U96U-CBQ1
Signal Type: APT
Expert Mode: false
Status Info Size: 0
Large Pixmap Support: false
Prompt on Exit: true
Decode in Record: true
Scroll in Record: true
Direction: northbound
Sample Rate: 11025.00
#Resurs Sample Rate: 11025.0
#Meteor3 Sample Rate: 11025.0
#Meteor2 Sample Rate: 11025.0
#SICH1M Sample Rate: 11025.0
#SICH Sample Rate: 11025.0
#Okean Sample Rate: 11025.0
#NOAA Sample Rate: 11025.0
#Meteosat Sample Rate: 11025.0
#GOES Sample Rate: 11025.0
#GMS Sample Rate: 11025.0
#MTSAT Sample Rate: 11025.0
Set Sample Rate: false
Sharpen: 0.6
JPEG Quality: 90
AVI Codec: RGB
AVI Transparent: false
AVI Quality: 85
AVI Scale: 0.5000
Max Frames: 16
Frame Rate: 1.000
Image Format: JPEG
Anaglyph Image Format: png
Composite Image Format: png
Messages: normal
Resync: enabled
Noise Filter: 0
Noise Threshold: 44
Crop: disabled
Contrast: var
Illumination Compensation: none
Gamma: 1.40
Despeckle: 2.00
No Signal Fill: true
Audio Directory: /home/anton/wxtoimg/audio
Image Directory: /home/anton/wxtoimg/raw
Save Directory: /home/anton/wxtoimg/images
Map Directory: /home/anton/wxtoimg/maps
Thumbnail Directory: /home/anton/wxtoimg/thumbnails
Template for Audio: false
Filename Info: UTC YYYYMMDDHHMM
Temperature Units: C
Distance Units: km
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Saturday, November 26, 2016

Creating a 2m Fm Repeater with a Raspberry Pi (B) and a RTL dongle.

Creating a 2m Fm Repeater with a Raspberry Pi (B) and a RTL dongle. (Don't use this application without the RF filter)

RTL dongles is available from Giga Technology and the filter will be available soon.



For the purpose of this configuration I expect your Raspberry pi to be connected to the internet.
How will this repeater work.
This configuration was done with the latest Raspbian Os for Raspberry Pi downloaded from here https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/
I used my original Raspberry Pi B+ and also repeated  this on a Banana Pi
 as I need a hard drive to compile gnuradio for later SDR use.

I will be using a rtl dongle to receive my input signal on 70cm frequency configurable on the amateur 2m or 70cm band. The receiver signal will then be demodulated and re transmitted with a DSP Library simulating a FM Signal using a GPIO pin on the Raspberry as an transmitter.

Get your Raspberry Pi on the latest patch/update.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
Go and get some Coffee as it might take long time to update ..zzz...... ;-) 

Install the SDR command line application to access rtl  USB dongle.
This rtl library allow you to demodulate the fm / ssb input

sudo apt-get install rtl-sdr-0.5.3-3 mplayer octave gnuplot gnuplot-x11


Download the Fm transmitter software from github using the following command

Install the rpitx python library using the following command. 

rpitx is the main software to transmit. It allows to transmit from:
  • IQ files *.iq (can be generated by external software like GNU Radio).
  • Frequency/Time files *.ft (generally used to easily implement digital modes)
Installation of rpitx

git clone https://github.com/F5OEO/rpitx git clone https://github.com/F5OEO/rpitx
cd rpitx # make sure to have access to the internet to download packages # or download and install them manually (libsndfile1-dev and imagemagick) 
./install.sh

Ok lets create some IQ files that will be used  to test the transmitter.

SSB Transmiiter
./pissb sampleaudio.wav ssbIQ.wav


A sample script testssb.sh is included.


FM modulation

pifm converts an audio file (Wav, 48KHz, 1 channel, pcm_s16le codec) to Narrow band FM (12.5khz excursion) and outputs it to a .ft file. Assuming your audio file is in your current working directory ./pifm sampleaudio.wav fm.ft

Connect a antenna to pin 4  long wire 40cm or longer depending on 1/4 lent of wavelength.
Pin Connection Diagram. Use coaxial cable to make connection
Here is a link with the filter details for the 2m Band


You could then transmit it on 100MHZ (please set a correct frequency to be legal) 
sudo ./rpitx -m RF -i fm.ft -f 100000 -l -c1


A sample script : testfm.sh is included.  add -c1 for pin 4 transmission in file

VFO
A VFO mode is provided to allows precise frequency resolution. For example to set a carrier on 100MHz (please set a correct frequency to be legal)sudo ./rpitx -m VFO -f 100000 -c1

Ok we got the Transmitter working Now lets get the rtl dongle working.
Follow my steps here http://zr6aic.blogspot.co.za/2013/02/setting-up-my-raspberry-pi-as-sdr-server.html

When you are complete with installation of rtl_sdr and have tested it wit rtl_test -t we can now check what audio devices the raspberry have.

sudo aplay -l
**** List of PLAYBACK Hardware Devices ****
card 0: ALSA [bcm2835 ALSA], device 0: bcm2835 ALSA [bcm2835 ALSA]
  Subdevices: 8/8
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0
  Subdevice #1: subdevice #1
  Subdevice #2: subdevice #2
  Subdevice #3: subdevice #3
  Subdevice #4: subdevice #4
  Subdevice #5: subdevice #5
  Subdevice #6: subdevice #6
  Subdevice #7: subdevice #7
card 0: ALSA [bcm2835 ALSA], device 1: bcm2835 ALSA [bcm2835 IEC958/HDMI]
  Subdevices: 1/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0

Now we need to install some audio utility programs to pyp and convert audio signals
sudo apt-get install sox libsox-fmt-all
ok lets test to see if we can receive 2m band transmission.

Tune the the rtl dongle for a frequency of 145.500Mhz and transmit a test signal.

sudo rtl_fm -f 145500000 -M fm 

Transmit a mp3 file recording
sox -t mp3 zr6aic_CQ_mono.mp3 -t wav -r 48000 -c 1 - | sudo ./pifm - 145.5 -c1

Installing ffmpeg


# build and install x264
git clone --depth 1 git://git.videolan.org/x264 cd x264 
./configure --host=arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi --enable-static --disable-opencl 
make -j 4
sudo make install

 # build and make ffmpeg
git clone --depth=1 git://source.ffmpeg.org/ffmpeg.git cd ffmpeg
./configure --arch=armel --target-os=linux --enable-gpl --enable-libx264 --enable-nonfree
make -j4
sudo make install


Install the following utility classes to help with the audio manipulation
sudo apt-get install libav-tools sox oggfwd libsndfile1-dev
sudo apt-get install fftw3 libfftw3-dev

Install csdr
git clone https://github.com/simonyiszk/csdr.git 
cd csdr 
git fetch 
git checkout dev 
make && sudo make install

Testing transmitter with Audio file (pin4 = -c1)
(while true; do cat speech48000.raw; done) | csdr convert_i16_f | csdr gain_ff 700 | csdr convert_f_samplerf 20833 | sudo rpitx -i- -m RF -f 145000 -c1

Putting the rpitx transmitter in TCP port listening mode (replace ip with Raspberry pi ip)
Sending audio from remote computer. (using mike from Linux computer)
arecord -fS16_LE -r48000 -c1 - | nc 192.168.10.128 8011

Testing RTL_fm (replace ip with your Raspberry ip)
sudo rtl_fm -M wbfm -f 98000000 | play -t raw -r 24k -es -b 16 -c 1 -V1 -
sudo rtl_fm -M wbfm -f 98000000 |nc  192.168.10.128 8011 -


Send rtl_dongle to transmitter (replace with your raspnerry ip)
sudo rtl_sdr -s 250000 -f 144300000 -p 0 - | nc -vv 192.168.10.128 8011
sudo rtl_sdr -s 4800 -f 144300000 -p 0 - | nc -vv 192.168.10.128 8011
 

Working RX with rtl dongle
sudo nc -l 8011 | csdr convert_i16_f | csdr gain_ff 8000 | csdr convert_f_samplerf 20833 | sudo rpitx -i- -m RF -f 145300 -c1

Working TX with pin 4

sudo rtl_fm -s48000 -g 49.6 -l 0 -M fm -f 434400000 |nc  192.168.10.128 8011 -

here is repeater without sqaulse


How to make the Repeater to auto start when the Raspberry start boot up.

Create a file and edit it
sudo vi /etc/init.d/Repeater

Add the following in the file and save it

#! /bin/sh

# /home/pi/sh/run_repeater.sh

### BEGIN INIT INFO

# Provides:          SDR repater start script
# Required-Start:    $remote_fs $syslog
# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs $syslog
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: Simple script to start a program at boot
# Description:       A simple script from www.stuffaboutcode.com which will start / stop a program a boot / shutdown.
### END INIT INFO

# If you want a command to always run, put it here


# Carry out specific functions when asked to by the system

case "$1" in
  start)
    echo "Starting SDR_repeater"
    # run application you want to start
    /home/pi/sh/run_repeater.sh
    ;;
  stop)
    echo "Stopping SDR_Repeater"
    # kill application you want to stop
    killall rtl_fm
    killall rpitx
    ;;
  *)
    echo "Usage: /etc/init.d/Repeater {start|stop}"
    exit 1
    ;;

esac

Make the file executable

sudo chmod 755 /etc/init.d/Repeater


Create a file in the /home/pi/sh/run_repeater.sh

Vi /home/pi/sh/run_repeater.sh

Add the Repeater script define above in this file so that it can auto start on boot time.


sudo rtl_fm -p 38 -s48000 -g 0 -l 3 -M fm -f 434400000 |csdr convert_i16_f | csdr gain_ff 12000 | csdr convert_f_samplerf 20330 | sudo rpitx -i- -m RF -f 145293 -c1&


Test the start and stop script.


Start the Repeater

sudo /etc/init.d/Repeater start

Stop The Repeater

sudo /etc/init.d/Repeater stop

Here is a video of the Test of the repeater ( I have changed the wires with a coaxial cable)


Video testing Fm demod and re mod cross band


What else can I do

Creating APRS transmitter
Setting up APRX rpitx with Raspberry Pi

aprs --callsign <callsign> --output - "<message>" | csdr convert_i16_f | csdr gain_ff 7000 | csdr convert_f_samplerf 20833 | sudo rpitx -m RF -i - -f 144800 -c1

Repeater configured in a single line 
sudo rtl_fm -p 38 -s48000 -g 0 -l 0 -M fm -f 434400000 |csdr convert_i16_f | csdr gain_ff 12000 | csdr convert_f_samplerf 20330 | sudo rpitx -i- -m RF -f 145293 -c1


Specifications (measured with New Low pass filter board )

Here is some results of Power measurements at 145Mhz. (@50ohm) 

  • Voltage  1.3V
  • Power 32.7 mW  (15.1dBm)

Total power consumption on power supply when repeater is running

Measured  5.44 V  and  540mA  = Total watts   2.937Watts

Wednesday, October 19, 2016

VHF 2m Low pass filter design for 146Mhz ideal for Raspberry Pi

VHF 2m Low pass filter design for 146 Mhz ideal for Raspberry Pi 

I wanted to use the Raspberry Pi SDR TX capabilities using the IO pins to generate RF.
The following was possible.
APRS
FM and SSB and CV
WSPR
SSTV....

There is a very nice library that will run on Raspberry Pi one B called rpitx witch can generate CW,SSB,FM SSTV...

The problem in using a Digital IO pin on the pi to generate RF signal would mean it will generate a squire wave signal witch has lots of harmonics. To solve the harmonic problem you will need to build a low pass filter.
Harmonic about 25 db down with now filter.




This harmonic would not be in regulation with rf transmission and would therefore need to create a low pass filter to remove the harmonics.

Here is a filter I build to get rid of the harmonics.

RFSim99 application.


Here is the Low pass filter spectrum analyzer curve on my LWT500,
The Harmonic level should be about 25 db below the carrier.

LPF Curve for 146Mhz (1 Harmonic down about 25db)


Here is some photos of the veroboard test filter I am now busy make a PCB for Raspberry Pi with a small 10db amp.


146 Mhz Low pass filter SMD components

Still need to replace the two wires with Coaxial cable.
This filter board with 7 stage low pass filter will be available soon. (60db)
3D model of 2m Filter board
I will still add a screenshot with the Filter attached later.
Boards has arrived. Assembly and testing will start.